Fauna of the Carpathian biosphere reserve

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w20.jpgThe general number of registered fauna species of the Carpathian biosphere reserve constitutes 2416 species, which refer to 14 classes of 5 types. The evertabrate animals are represented here by 2135 species. This figure does not include the whole diversity of the reserve's evertebrates - according to the previous data, at least 15 th. evertebrate species from 19 classes of 6 types are found in the territory of the CBR. Such big difference between the amount of registered and expected species could be explained, first of all, by the heterogeneous level of study of the different taxonomic groups - some of them have not been investigated at all. The amount of the endemic Carpathian species, protected in the reserve's territory, is more than 100.




Amount of the evertebrate animals, registered in the territory of the Carpathian biosphere reserve.



Type Plathelmintes


Class Trematoda


Class Cestoda


Type Acanthocephala


Class Acanthocephales


Type Nemathelmintes


Class Nematoda


Type Arthropoda


Class Insecta


Series Collembola


Series Trichoptera


Series Orthoptera


Series Homoptera


Series Hemiptera


Series Coleoptera


Series Lepidoptera


Series Hymenoptera


Series Diptera


Class Myriapoda


Subclass Diplopoda


Class Arachnida


Series Aranei


Series Acari


Type Mollusca


Class Gastropoda


Subclass Pulmonata




Amount of the vertebrate species, registered in the territory of the Carpathian biosphere reserve

















The main nucleus (characteristic combination of species) of vertebrates fauna of the upland areas of the Chornohirskyi, Svydovetskyi and Maramoroskyi massifs are species of taiga and alpine complexes. In the upland areas, at an altitude of 1700 m a.s.l. and higher, are found such species as Chyonomis nivalis and Prunella collaris, entered into the Red Data Book of Ukraine. The elfin woodland is represented by a special mountain race Lyrurus tetrix, which is very rare everywhere. The typical reptile species here are: Vipera berus and Lacerta vivipara. Small stagnant ponds in the subalpine zone are used for spawning by Triturus montandoni and T. alpestris. The latter species is found, mainly, in the upland landscapes. There is also a large number of Bombina variegata and Bufo bufo here.

In the upland areas of the Maramoroskyi and Chornohirskyi massifs are preserved all necessary conditions for the existance of Marmota marmota and Rupicarpa rupicarpa, which have totally disappeared from the Ukrainian Carpathians in the first half of the XX century. Reintroduction of these species will be of great significance for the stabilization of vulnerable upland ecosystems.

The typical species of the coniferous and mixed forests are: Picoidus tridactylus, Regulus regulus, Turdus torquatus, Loxia curvirostra, the Carpathian subspecies of Tetrao urogalus rudolfi, Lynx lynx, Ursus arctos etc. Such species as Pitymis tatricus is also found here, the areal of which, as it was considered until quite recently, existed only within the High Tatra Mountains in the Western Carpathians. Fauna of these massifs is represented by species, typical for the whole forest zone of the Carpathians: mountain subspecies of Cervus elaphus montanus and Sus scrofa attila, Capreolus capreolus, Canis lupus, Strix aluco, Cinclus cinclus and others.

More rocky landscape and northern exposition of the Maramoroskyi massif causes a number of paculiar features. Such species as Falco peregrinus, is found only in this territory of the reserve. The others, smaller falcons: F. subbuteo, F. tinnunculus, which show a preference for the rocky sites, are larger in number. The species of Nucifraga caryocatactes, which does not nest in the forests of other protected massifs, is found here in the nestling period.

A lot of evertebrate species - Carpathian and Eastern Carpathian endemics - are registered only in separate mountain massifs of the Ukrainian Carpathians. In Chornohora they are: Calosoma inquisitor, Carabus transsylvanicus, Trechus plicatulus, Duvalius ruthenus (Carabidae, Coleoptera); in Maramoroshi: Carabus fabricii, Nebria transsylvanica and Trechus carpaticus (Carabidae, Coleoptera), thrived in the rocky outlets.

Fauna of the beech virgin forests of the Carpathian reserve is very peculiar. Here are found both "taiga" species - Lynx lynx, Strix uralensis, Dryocopus martius, Pyrrhula pyrrhula, and species, which are typical for the broad-leaved forests. They are represented by Turdus merula, Dendrocopos medius, D. leucotos, Picus canus, Ficedulla albicollis, Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Columba oenas, Muscardinus avellanarius, Felis silvestris, Sus scrofa, Salamandra salamandra. The typical species in this territory are: Cervus elaphus, Martes martes, Clethrionomys glareolus, Buteo buteo, Sitta europaea, Rana temporaria, which are spread in the whole forest zone of the Carpathians. Among rare animals, entered into the Red Data Book of Ukraine, the following species are found: Neomys anomalus, Mustela erminea, Lutra lutra, Bubo bubo, Ciconia nigra, Elaphe longissima, Triturus montandoni, etc.

The insects are represented by the typical mesophyll Middle-European species. There are such rare species among them as: Osmoderma eremita, Lucanus cervus, Rosalia alpina, Cerambyx cerdo, Parnassius mnemosinae and others.

The species of Salmo trutta m. fario, Cottus gobio, Cobitis taenia, Phoxynus phoxynus and Eudonthomyzon danfordi are found in the protected cold mountain rivers. In the tributaries of the Tysa river, such species as Hucho hucho and Thymallus thymallus go on spawning.

Fauna of cheiroptera in the reserve is very diverse. It numbers 20 species of bats, among them - 10 rare species, entered into the Red Data Book of Ukraine (1994) and the European Red List (1991). They are: Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Rh. hipposideros, Miniopterus schreibersi, Myotis myotis, M. emarginatus, M. bechsteini and M. nattereri, Barbastella barbastellus, Plecotus auritus and Nyctalus leisleri. Most of the cheiroptera species are closely associated with the underground voids. There are nearly 30 adits in the reserve's territory (Kuziyskiy and Maramoroskiy massifs), karst (Uholsko-Shyrokoluzhanskiy massif) and tectonic caves (Kuziyskiy massif). In winter, congestion of bats in the underground refuges numbers about one thousand and a half individuals, the main part of which constitute Myotis myotis and M. blythi. About 1500 animals, which refer to 13 species, hibernate in the cave "Druzhba". The unique fauna of evertebrates-troglobionts is marked in the Uholka karst caves, among which there is a number of narrowly endemic species, found only in the protected area. They are, in particular: Duvalius transcarpaticus (Carabidae, Coleoptera) and Willemia virae (Collembola).

The faunistic structure of the "Valley of Narcissi" greatly differs from other protected sites. The animals of the water-meadows of Transcarpathian plain are represented here. Among birds prevail such species as: whinchat (Saxicola rubetra), yellow bunting (Emberiza citrinella) and whitethroat (Sylvia communis). Typical species of the more humidified places are: corncrake (Crex crex) and sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus). Such species as Phasianus colchicus and Remiz pendulinus are found in shrubs, along the Khustets river.

The typical amphibia of the "Valley of Narcissi" are: edible frog (Rana lessonae), common toad (Bufo bufo L), smooth and warty newts (Triturus vulgaris; T. cristatus). Among the reptile species one can found a grass snake (Natrix natrix) and a sand lizard (Lacerta agilis). Fauna of mammals is represented by Microtus arvalis, Apodemus agrarius, Iicromys minutus, Ondatra zibethica, Lepus europaeus and other species, untypical for the mountain massifs of the reserve. Rich ichthyofauna of the Khustets river - flat watercourse of the reserve’s territory - numbers nearly 20 fish species.

Fauna of the preserves, located in the warmest regions of Transcarpathia, is very distinctive. Such species as Pelobates fuscus, Lacerta viridis and Natrix tessellata are marked in the reserve's territory, only here. The typical species also are: Rana dalmatina, Bufo viridis and Elaphe longissima, found only sporadically in other protected massifs. The rare species of entomofauna, with the south-European connections, are found in this territory: Mantis religiosa, Ascalaphus macaronius, Porphyrophora polonica, rare species of Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera.

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