ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1999
Name of the area: Carpathian biosphere reserve
Central authority concerned:
Name and address: Ministry for Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety of Ukraine
Kyiv, Khreschatyk str., 5
Tel./Fax: 380 44 2949556
Authority responsible for its management:
Name and address: Carpathian Biosphere Reserve
90600, Transcarpathian region, Rakhiv, P.O.Box 8
Tel./Fax.: 380 3132 22054/22193
I. GENERAL INFORMATION
1. Natural heritage (general abiotic description: geomorphology, geology and hydrogeology, habitats, flora, fauna, landscape) - Conservation situation.
1.1. Environment: changes or deterioration in the environment of natural or anthropic origin, accidental or permanent, actual or anticipated
The winter of 1998–1999 was marked by heavy snow-falls, owing to which the depth of snow cover in the mountainous regions have reached dozens meters. As a result, the abnormal strong avalanches in the spring period have caused considerable changes in the plant cover of the reserve's territory. In general, about 100 ha of forest stands were destroyed in the reserve's area. No other essential changes in the state of environment are marked.
1.2. Flora and vegetation: changes in the plant population and in the vegetational cover: presumed causes
In the result of flora inventory in the reserve's newly attached territories, the List of high vascular plants has been replenished with 55 new species. On the whole, 447 herbarium sheets have been given to the herbarium of the reserve. "The Project on the organization of territory and protection of natural complexes of the Carpathian Biosphere Reserve", which is under realization from 1999, envisages bounds determination of functional zones in such a way, to achieve most effectively protection of the populations of rare and endemic plant species and unique plant communities.
1.3. Fauna: changes in the sedentary or migratory populations; congregating and breeding places
Mammals: Chiropterofauna of the CBR has been replenished by a new bat species - Myotis brandtii. This is the first registration of species not only for the reserve's territory, but for the whole Ukraine. The number of hibernating bats in the reserve's caves increased in 5% and makes about 1500 individuals. State of the populations of other mammal species, including rare ones, did not undergo considerable changes.
Birds. Stay in the reserve's territory of a new rare bird species, entered into the Red Data Book of Ukraine - Hieratus pennatus has been determined. The populations of nearly all species of the reserve's ornithofauna are stable.
Other animals. Within year under review no sudden change in the condition of populations of all reserve's fauna species has been marked.
“The project on the organization of territory and protection of natural complexes of the Carpathian Biosphere Reserve" envisages the conservation improvement of rare animal species and valuable zoocomplexes.
2. Cultural heritage and socio-economic context
2.1. Cultural heritage
2.1.1. Changes concerning cultural heritage
The exposition of the reserve's Museum of Mountains Ecology and History of Nature Use in the Ukrainian Carpathians has been replenished by two significant subject-matter sections. Acquisition of a hall, dedicated to the mountainous agriculture and creation of the all-round panorama "Pasture land economy", dedicated to the upland dairy sheep- breeding and attendant trades have been completed.
2.2. Socio-economic context
2.2.1. Changes concerning the socio-economic context
The current year passed under the sign of outcomes liquidation of the 1998 autumn catastrophic flood. The flood has caused huge losses to the areas of the reserve's location. Hundreds of buildings, including homes, communications, many kilometres of motor ways, roads, railways, etc. have been destroyed. For today, the overwhelming majority of the destroyed objects is restored, specifically homes and main roads are completely rebuilt.
3. Education and scientific interest
3.1. Visitors - Information policy
3.1.1. Arrangements for receiving and informing the public (building, booklets, maps, cards, etc.)
Within period under review, as already mentioned above, an exposition of the reserve's Museum of Ecology has been considerably enlarged. Two big subject-matter sections: "Mountainous agriculture" and "Pasture land economy", which include a big amount of artefacts and natural exhibits are prepared completely. In 1999, a project of large information complex for the territory of the geographical Centre of Europe location has been worked out. The project envisages creation of the information-training centre, ecological-cognitive route and rest sites. Within current year, nearly 30% of funds have been used.
In 1999, the book "National parks and reserves of Ukraine", which includes a chapter, prepared by the reserve's specialists about the Carpathian biosphere reserve, has been published. A booklet, dedicated to the Tysa river problems and a colour poster "Carpathian reserve" are also ready for the publication.
In 1999, the reserve has participated in organization of the international action "March of parks-99", which included a number of competitions for the youth, ecological subbotnik (voluntary unpaid work performed collectively), a few presentations of the nature-protected literature, etc. In general, more than 5000 people participated in this action.
An international ecological camp "Oikos-99" was run in the reserve's territory. Nearly 100 young ecologists from all regions of Ukraine and Lithuania participated in its work.
3.1.2. Frequentation by visitors and behaviour (number, distribution in time and space)
The main objects for visiting in the CBR are: Information Centre of the reserve in the town of Rakhiv, which includes the Museum of Mountains Ecology and ecological route; protected massifs Chornohirskyi, Svydovetskyi and the "Valley of Narcissi". The Information Centre of the reserve has been visited by nearly 2 ths. of people within this year. In the "Valley of Narcissi", which is mainly visited in May, there were above 1500 visitors; in other massifs - about 1000 visitors this year.
3.1.3. Special visits (distinguished persons, groups, etc)
In connection with the conduction of international scientific conference, the CBR and its Information Centre have been visited by the leading scientists and specialists in nature protection from all countries of the Carpathian region, in general more than 150 people.
3.2. Scientific research
3.2.1. Current or completed research (observation, experimentation, identification or inventory of the species listed in the appendices to the Bern Convention. . . )
In 1999, the reserve has continued study of the course of natural processes and correlations in the protected ecosystems by the programme of Litopys Pryrody/Cronicle of Nature (long-term ecological monitoring) and study of the structure and dynamics of forest and meadow ecosystems with the aim of methods development on their conservation and regeneration. The inventory of flora and fauna of the newly attached areas was continued too.
The international scientific collaboration of the CBR in 1999 has been manifested in the conduction of international scientific conference "Ecological and social-economic aspects of the catastrophic natural phenomena in the Carpathian region (floods, mud-flows, land slides), held from September 21 to September 24, 1999 in the town of Rakhiv (Transcarpathian region, Ukraine). In its work participated responsible specialists of the Ministry for Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety of Ukraine and Ministry of Emergencies of Ukraine, representatives of local authorities and the public, scientists, specialists of nature-protected institutions from Ukraine, Poland, Hungary, Switzerland, Romania, Slovakia and the U.S.A. – in general nearly 200 people. According to the results of confernce work, Proceedings of the Conference, including 94 papers, were published. The conference Resolution and Programme are enclosed.
Within current year, specialists of the CBR together with scientists of the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research continued work on the realization of project on the reserve's unique virgin ecosystems conservation.
3.2.2. Scientific publications.
Within 1999, specialists of the reserve have published 27 scientific works. About 50 scientific works are in print.
4. Site description (vulnerability, protection status, ownership, documentation)
4.1. Changes in legislation or regulations
In 1999, the "Project on the organization of territory and protection of natural complexes" has been working out in the CBR. The project is carried out by the Ukrainian state planning forest regulated association. The grounds for the project's realization is the Decree of the President of Ukraine from 11.04.1997 #325/97 "On territorial expansion of the Carpathian biosphere reserve". The "Project" includes scientific substantiation and working out of a system of measures, aimed to ensure the effective conservation and protection, rational use, increase of biological stability and regeneration of natural complexes of the CBR, and also evaluation of its forest resources. At the same time, detailed investigation and description of natural complexes is conducted in the territory, given to the reserve for permanent use. In the result of project's realization there will be prepared materials, which include general information on the reserve, news on its natural and cultural-historical conditions.
4.2. Changes in ownership title (conversion to public property, rentings, etc.)
4.3. Extension or transfer, new uses (for example conversion into total reserve)
An important task of the Project on the organization of the CBR's territory is the conduction of functional zoning. In the course of project's realization there were distinguished 4 functional zones in the territory of the CBR: strictly protected core zone, buffer zone, transition zone and regulated conservation regime zone.
Core zone includes sites of utter protection of the former Carpathian state reserve, typical the least disturbed by the anthropogenic impact natural complexes in the newly attached areas, which are given to the reserve for usage, including upland meadows and slightly disturbed and valuable in nature-protected respect natural complexes, which are included to the reserve's territory without withdrawal from other users (first of all the former objects of nature-protected fund).
Regulated conservation regime zone includes territories, which are periodically submitted to the slight anthropogenic influence and need certain regulatory measures for the maintenance of their natural state. Here belong sites along the roads (50-100 m wide from each side), scientific-cognitive, tourist routes and routes of patrolling, horse-drawn portages for pulling away the hay (25-50 m wide from each side), passing through the core zone, forest glades and meadows to maintain, with the aim of protection, the existing biodiversity in the reserve and preserves, which are not included to the core zone.
Buffer zone includes territories, distinguished with the aim of prevention the negative impact of economy management in the core zone. Here belong sites, adjoined to the core zone and periodically submitted to the anthropogenic impact from the side of neighbouring territories. The width of the buffer zone is determined by the intensity of anthropogenic impacts penetration.
Transition zone includes areas of the reserve, which are not included to the other zones. Here, the sites of mass recreation, settlements, areas of traditional land tenure, forest use (including hunting) and other types of economy management are consentrated. Transition zone serves as a training ground for the conduction of monitoring of the anthropogenic impact on natural complexes and for working out the ecologically substantiated approaches to nature use.
5. Site management (management plans, budget and personnel)
5.1. Improvements made
5.1.1. Ecological action affecting the flora and biotopes: controls of fauna.
One of the main tasks of functional zoning of the CBR's territory , as above mentioned, is ensuring the effective protection of flora and fauna representatives in the reserve, zoo- and phytocomplexes. Marking out of functional zones and drawing of the boundary-lines is precisely subordinated to this principle. The regulation of number of the living organisms in the reserve is not conducted and is not foreseen. In the critical periods of life, for separate groups of animals, for example ungulate (severe heavy snow winters) the feeding up is allowed. For separate groups of animals, the regular control and observation of number (for example, inventory of bats during hibernation in the underground refuges) is conducted.
5.1.2. Protection against the elements (fire, water, regime)
Within 1999, there were 2 km of anti-fire roads constructed, 18 km of mineralized stripes were fit out, 5 km of the river beds of mountainous rivers were cleared, 2,5 km of abutments were constructed.
5.1.3. Approaches and thoroughfares (paths, roads, car parks, signposting, fencing, etc)
Within year under review, 26,5 km of roads were constructed and repaired, 180 km of mountain paths, 36 bridges, 256 foot-bridges. 160 quarter and boundary-line marks were also made and placed.
5.1.4. Field equipment (hides and study facilities)
2 new meteorological posts in Kevelivske and Trybushanske forestries were placed and fit out.
5.2.1. Administrative department: changes made
5.2.2. Wardens’ department: changes made
5.2.3. Internal policing measures
5.2.4. Infringement of regulations and damage: legal action
Within 1999, 27 small infringements of the protected regime, which drived to the indemnity for losses in the amount of $ 2 000 have been fixed.
II. INFLUENCE OF THE AWARD OF THE EUROPEAN DIPLOMA OF PROTECTED AREAS
Award of the European Diploma had a positive influence on the CBR. The prestige and authority of the reserve as a scientific-research nature-protected institution has considerably enhanced. This, in it's turn improved the security of the reserve and effectiveness of it's activity.
III. CONDITIONS AND/OR RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AWARD OR RENEWAL
Progress with measures taken in order to meet the conditions and/or recommendations defined during the award or renewal of the European Diploma of Protected Areas.