Flora of the Carpathian biosphere reserve

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w13.jpgThe last complex flora inventory of the Carpathian biosphere reserve was conducted within 1995-1996, that is before the considerable expansion of its territory, which has been taken place in early 1997 (nearly 19 th. ha were added). Some rich in the floristic aspect sites of the Volcanic Carpathians and upland areas of the Svydovets ridge were included to the reserve, owing to the expansion of its territory. Thanks to this, flora of the reserve was enriched, due to the previous valuations, with thousands of species. Since investigations in the newly-attached territories began just now, we are giving only previous information concerning them, without taking into account the general list of the CBR's flora.

In flora of the Carpathian biosphere reserve, like in the whole Carpathians, prevail species of the middle-European, European and EuroAsian areographic groups. The mycobiota of the reserve numbers, at least, 262 fungi species. The main part of them (206 species) is formed by phytotrophic micromyceta, 56 species belong to macromyceta. The biggest amount of species is typical for Sphaeropsidales (34), Uredinales (30) and Erysiphales (24). The distribution of the specific composition of fungi in reference to the big sepatate groups is given below: Myxomycotina - 40 species of 15 genera, Oomycotina - 18 species of 3 genera, Ascomycotina - 63 species of 35 genera, Basidiomycotina - 56 species of 38 genera, Basidiomycotina - 30 species of 9 genera, Deuteromycotina - 53 species of 6 genera.

Flora of lichens numbers 392 species of lichens, which belong to 120 genera of 45 families and 8 orders, and a group of Lichenes imperfecti. 6 species of them are entered into the Red Data Book of Ukraine, 12 - rare species, 9 species - recommended for the insertion into the Red Data Book of Ukraine, 4 - relict species.

Flora of Bryophyta in the reserve's territory numbers 440 species, which belong to 60 families and 157 species. 92 species refer to the class of Hepaticopsida, 16 species - to Sphafnopsida, and 332 species - ti Bryopsida. There are 65 rare species in the Ukrainian Carpathians.

The algal flora includes 465 species, which are represented by 502 intraspecific taxons. The basis of the floristic composition of algal flora in the CBR is formed by: Bacillariophyta - 156 species and 177 inner taxons; Chlorophyta - 133 and 138; Cyanophyta 110 and 118. The diversity of other groups of algae is smaller: Euglenophyta - 40 species and 43 inner taxons; Dinophyta - 10 species; Rhodophyta - 3; Xantophyta - 2. There are 103 rare species of algae, which are found in the reserve's territory.

Flora of vascular plants in the Carpathian biosphere reserve includes 5 divisions, 102 families, nearly 420 genera and 1062 species, which constitutes more than 50% of flora of the Ukrainian Carpathians. 64 species (6,2% from the whole amount of species) are entered into the Red Data Book of Ukraine.

The distribution of vascular plants in regard to the various taxonomical classes is given below:

Lycopodiophyta - 2 families 3 genera 4 species;

Equisetophyta - 1 family 1 genus 7 species;

Polypodiophyta - 9 families 16 genera 29 species;

Pinophyta - 3 families 6 genera 9 species;

Magnoliophyta - 87 families 394 genera 1013 species;

incl. Magnoliopsida - 72 families 311 genera 781 species;

Liliopsida - 15 families 83 genera 232 species;

Total - 102 families 420 genera 1062 species.

The main floristic diversity of the Carpathian biosphere reserve is concentrated in the meadow coenoses, represented in the lowland flood-plains of the massif "Valley of Narcissi", in the upland areas and in the forest glades. The big floristic richness is typical also for the limestone ridges (more than 200 species).

The vegetation of the massif "Valley of Narcissi" is represented in 90% by rich in herbs and grass-herbaceous communities with the prevailing Festuca rubra, Deschampsia caespitosa, Alopecurus pratensis, Bromus mollis. In the sites with the increased humidity are found: Carex acutiformis, C. acuta, C. vulpina and Juncus effusus. In general, more than 400 plant species, among which there are such rare species as Achillea salicipholia, Dactylorhisa fuschii, D. majalis, Erytrhonium dens-canis, Gentiana pneumonanthe, Gymnadenia odoratissima, Iris sibirica, Orchis coryophora, O. laxiflora, Potentilla alba and others, grow in the "Valley of Narcissi". A unique peculiarity of this protected site - location here of one of the biggest flat populations of the rare species of Narcissus angustifolius.

The main nucleus (characteristic combination of species) of flora of the forest zone is formed by the unmoral, boreal and mountain species. Among them are: Campanula carpatica, Scopolia carniolica, Atragene alpina, Galanthus nivalis, Helleborus purpurascens, Leucanthemum waldschteinii, Lilium martagon, Helianthemum ovatum, Sedum hispanicum, Cephalanthera rubra, Listera cordata and others. The greatest floristic richness, within the forest zone, is typical for the limestone ridges, in particular in Uholsko-Shyrokoluzhanskiy massif, where grow such species as Cotoneaster integerrimus, Juniperus sabina (a sole habitat in the Ukrainian Carpathians), Quercus petrea, Rhamnus cathartica, Tilia platyphillos, Taxus baccata (about 1,5 th. individuals), among the herbaceous plants - petrophytes and alpine species of Cephalanthera longifolia, Coronilla elegans, Cortusa matthioli, Iris pseudocyperus, Jovibarba preissiana, Saxifraga paniculata, Scabiosa lucida. There is also a number of nemoral and arid species - Arum alpinum, Corallorhiza trifida, Epipogium aphyllum, Erythronium dens-canis, Ophyoglossum vulgatum, Viola dacica and others.

The elfin woodland, formed by Duschekia viridis, Juniperus sibirica, Pinus mugo, is spread in the subalpine zone of Chornohora and Maramorosh. Typical are the rare communities, with the prevailing Rhododendron kotschyi, Salix herbacea, S. retusa, and the tall herbaceous species Adenostyles alleariae and Cirsium waldschteinii. The considerable areas here are occupied by the herbaceous communities with Deschampsia caespitosa, Calamagrostis villosa, and smaller - with Nardus stricta. Great part of these herb layers is formed by Anthoxanthum alpinum, Agrostis tenuis, Festuca rubra and species of the genus Poa, especially P. alpina and P. pratensis. The alpine meadows are formed by the communities with Carex sempervirens, Festuca supina and Juncus trifidus. The communities with the prevailing Carex curvula and Lerchenfeldia flexuosa are found fragmentary.

In the subalpine and alpine zones of the protected massifs grow a number of rare species, such as: Anemonastrum narcissiflorum, Aconitum firmum, Anthemis carpatica, Chrysosplenium alpinum, Gentiana acaulis, G. lutea, G. punctata, G. verna, Melampyrum saxosum, Narcissus angustifolius, Parageum montanum, Pedicularis verticillata, Poa deylii, Polygonum viviparum, Pulmonaria fillarskiana, Pulsatilla alba, Rhodiola rosea, Sempervivum montanum.

A special interest in the floristic point of view represents the upland areas of Svydovets, in the region of summits: Mala Blyznytsia (1778 m) and Velyka Blyznytsia (1883 m), included to the reserve's territory in 1997. Here grow such rare arctoalpine species as Aster alpinus, Bartsia alpina, Dryas octopetala, Diphasiastrum alpinum, Juncus castaneum, Lloydia serotina, Salix hastata. Such species as Drabba aizoides, Euphrasia salisbur-gensis, Saxifraga androsacea and others grow in the Ukrainian Carpathians only here. Very rare are also such species as Leonthopodium alpinum, Aquilegia nigricans, Swertia alpina.

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