MARAMOROSKYI PROTECTED MASSIF
It is located on the northern megaslope of the Rakhiv Mountains - one of the Maramoroskyi crystal massif’s offspurs. The protected territory, with the area of 8990 ha, is located at an altitude of 750 - 1940 m.a.s.l. The main mountain unit is the Pip Ivan Maramoroskyi Mountain (1940 m). The massif is formed by the firm crystal sediments - gneisses, micaceous and quartz slates, marmoreal limestones of the Jurassic period. All these cause the specific features of relief, soil cover, flora and vegetation. The relief of Maramorosh is characterized by the deep intermountain valleys, numerous rocky crests and peaks. The traces of cainozoic ice formation - glacial cirques are typical for this area. The basins of the Kvasnyi and Bilyi streams are located in the massif’s territory.
The basin of the Kvasnyi stream is characterized by cool and cold humid climate, the typical features of which, according to the data of Luhy meteostation, are given above. The basin of the Bilyi stream is characterized by the warmer climate. According to the data of Dilove meteostation (390 m.a.s.l.), the average temperature of January is 4 degrees below zero, July - 18.5, the average annual temperature is 7.9 degrees. The average annual amount of precipitation - 1087 mm. In the upland areas the climate is cold, humid.
The Maramoroskyi protected massif is characterized by the peculiar vegetable cover. It is stipulated by geological structure of the massif. The mixed larch-conifer and deciduous forests, usually formed by Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba, Picea exceisa and Acer pseudoplatanus, rarely - by Carpinus betulus, are widely spread in the lower hypsometric levels. The beech virgin forests are widely spread in the southern slopes and soils, which are rich on calcium. The mixed phytocenosises are found in the largest part of the massif’s territory. The pure climax fir-groves are found at an altitude of 1600-1700 m, where the upper forest line lies, and the climate is cold. The subalpine and alpine meadows, with the fragments of elfine wood thicket, mainly formed by Pinus mugo, are found at a higher altitude. The communities of Rhododendron kotschyi and shrubs - Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea and V. uliginosum are widely distributed here. A number of rare plants, such as Anemonastrum narcissiflorum, Anthemis carpatica, Gentiana acaulis, G. lutea, G. punctata, Narcissus angustifolius, Poa deylii, Pulsatilla alba, Sempervivum montanum grow in the subalpine and alpine zones, and in the forest zone - also Camhanula carpatica, Scopolia carniolica and others.
Fauna of this massif is very similar to the fauna of Chornohora, but it has some peculiarities. Owing to the rocky landscape of the upland areas, such species of the stony places as snow vole and alpine accentor are better represented here. The species of Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), which prefers rocky sites, is registered only here in the reserve. Among evertebrates one should note the endemic species of insects, which are timed to the rocky outputs: Carabus fabricii, Nebria transsylvanica and Trechus carpaticus.