The Carpathian mountain system, besides the Alps and the Balkans, is characterized by the largest biological diversity in the European continent. The intensive usage of nature began in the Ukrainian part of the Carpathians later, than in the Western Carpathians. Owing to this, considerable areas of wild nature, in particular virgin forests, were preserved here. The question on their protection was raised as far back as in the beginning of the XX century, when several forest reserves in Chornohora and the Maramorosh Alps were established to conserve and renovate vanishing representatives of flora and fauna. The activity of scientists on the Ukrainian Carpathians nature protection was especially stimulated after the Second World War. Already in 1949, a valuable forest massif with the area of 3,9 th. ha was established on the northern slopes of Chornohirskyi range. In 1955, it was proclaimed the protected massif. Much attention to the questions of territorial nature protection was also given in Transcarpathian region. In 1958, on the southern slopes of Krasna mountain massif, in the basins of Velyka and Mala Uholka, the Uholskyi forest preserve was established, with the area of 4600 ha, and in 1969 - Shyrokoluzhanskyi floristic preserve, with the area of 5644 ha, in the basin of Luzhanka. Thus, all preconditions for the establishment of biogeographically representative reserve in the region of the Ukrainian Carpathians were formed.
BIn 1968, with the aim to preserve the unique mountain landscapes, the Ukrainian government has adopted the Resolution on the formation of the Carpathian reserve, with the area of 12,6 th. ha. Within 30 years of its functioning, the territory of the reserve has been changed several times. Today, nearly 2,5% of the whole territory of the region is under protection of the reserve, which from 1992 became a part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves of UNESCO. The Carpathian biosphere reserve (CBR), with the total area of 53630 ha, consists of six detached massifs, botanical preserves “Chorna Hora” and “Yulivska Hora”. The protected massifs are located at an altitude of 180 - 2061 m.a.s.l. in the central and eastern sectors of the Ukrainian Carpathians. Such territorial structure of the CBR represents nearly the whole landscape and biogeographical diversity of the Eastern Carpathians. Practically undisturbed by human activity foothill oak-groves; mountain beech, mixed and spruce forests; subalpine and alpine meadows, formed by pine-alder mossy forest and rocky-lichen landscapes are represented here. Almost 90% of the whole reserve’s territory are covered with forests - mainly virgin forests. More than one thousand species of high vascular plants, 64 species of mammals, 173 species of birds, 9 reptile species, 13 species of amphibian, 23 fish species, more than 10 000 evertebrate animal species etc. are protected in the reserve. The best preserved Carpathian ecosystems, which serve the storehouses for many rare and vanishing plant and animal species, are represented here. 64 species of plants and 72 species of animals, entered into the Red Data Book of the IUCN and Ukraine, and the European Red List, are registered in the reserve.